Mature mRNA then becomes the messenger carrier which allows protein synthesis to occur. The ribonucleoside triphosphate (NTPs) aligns along the antisense DNA strand by base pairing, then the RNA polymerase joins the ribonucleotides together forming a pre-messenger RNA molecule, complementary to a region on the antisense strand. All rights reserved. © copyright 2003-2020 All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. The correct answer: The mRNA sequence which is made from the given DNA template strands given below are dependent on the complementary sequence. Each amino acid is coded for by a sequence of three nucleotides (also called a codon). The RNA polymerase binds to the transcription factor complex, allowing the double helix of DNA to open up. The conversion of RNA to DNA is normally desirably applied in the laboratory majorly as a diagnostic tool for most RNA viruses such as HIV, hepatitis, influenza, coronaviruses, etc. Even though there are nucleotides before that, we will begin translation at AUG. By going through each codon, we will get the amino acid sequence below. The other two sequences given here are either a mixed DNA-RNA or strictly RNA sequences only, and they cannot be further converted to the mRNA. Three major types of RNA are found in all the living cells; messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA. This forms a. The DNA strand that corresponds to the mRNA is called the coding strand. In transcription only one of the DNA strands is transcribed, the strand that has the initiator sequence. The other strand from the DNA template is known as the coding strand, because the base sequence of the new mRNA is identical to it, except for the replacement of thiamine with uracil base. The synthesized mRNA is transported out of the cell nucleus where it will later on aid in the synthesis of proteins by the mechanism of translation. Therefore, DNA codes for RNA, RNA codes for proteins, and RNA can also code for DNA in the case of reverse transcription. The RNA molecules thus produced are single-stranded RNA called the messenger RNA or mRNA. The synthesis of mRNA always takes place in 5’ to 3’ direction. the nucleotide sequence in mRNA is complementary to the template strand while it is identical to the non-template strand. As each nucleoside triphosphate is added to the 3′ end of the growing strand, the two terminal phosphates are removed. We will also see the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic mRNA. This strand undergoing the process is known as the template strand. It involves the capping of methylated guanine to protect the mRNA. Double-stranded DNA contains bases (A, T, G and C) that always bond in the same pairs (A-T and G-C). When the RNA polymerase is bound to the promoter sequence, it denaturalizes the DNA duplex locally, forming open promoter complex which becomes the unwound part of the double-stranded DNA, exposing the bases on each of the two DNA strands. • Introns which are the non-coding sequences, get removed by spliceosome excision. It must move outside the nucleus into the cytoplasm so that it can perform its function. … The addition of methylated guanine occurs at the 5′ end of the mRNA transcript. After initiating transcription, the sigma (σ) factor dissociates from the RNA polymerase. Transcription takes place in three distinct steps. In prokaryotes, one type of RNA polymerase enzyme is used, while in eukaryotes, three types of RNA polymerases are used i.e RNA polymerase I, II, and III. Earlier, proteins were believed to be the carriers of inheritance, but the discovery of DNA has led us to unravel how DNA codes for the proteins. The process of transcription involves three steps; initiation, elongation, and termination. 3. Transcription takes place when there is a need for a particular gene product at a specific time or in a specific tissue or spot.

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